history

The History of Halkidiki

"Study the past if you want to define the future"

Confucius, 551-479 BC

Halkidiki geographically belongs to Macedonia, issuing into the Aegean Sea. The sea enters Halkidiki and forms its three legs: The peninsula of Athos, The Sithonia peninsula, The Kassandra peninsula 

The interest of the area remains undiminished from antiquity until today. According to mythology, in Kassandra is buried the giant Egelados (earthquake), the son of Poseidon Sithonas, the current name of Sithonia is due to him. Additionally, as the legend says, the giant Athos threw a rock against the Olympian Gods and the peninsula, which is hosting the Mount Athos, was created.

Of particular importance is the cave of Petralona. Beyond of the magic which offers to the visitor, also confirms the existence of human life about 700.000 years ago. In addition, a skull found at the site is said to be about 200.000 years oldο Pelasgians were the first who lived in the area, while in the 8th century BC, Greeks from Eretria and Chalkida moved there, of whom the area was named as "Halkidiki". Some of the most important ancient cities are:· Olynthos (capital of ancient Halkidiki)· The ancient Stageira (birthplace of the great Greek philosopher Aristotle)· Mendi· Toroni· Afitos· Skioni

480 BC
480 BC

In 480 BC, the king of Persia Xerxes built a canal on the peninsula of Mount Athos, one of the greatest achievements of ancient times.

379 BC
379 BC

In 379 BC, the Spartans dissolved the "public Chalkideon".

348 BC
348 BC

In 348 BC, Halkidiki is integrated into the Macedonian Kingdom under the King Philip.

168 BC
168 BC

In 168 BC, passes into the hands of the Romans and its decline begins.

50 AC
50 AC

In 50 AD, Halkidiki embraces Christianity with the arrival of the Apostle Paul.

700 – 900 AD
700 – 900 AD

The dark years 700 – 900 AD, cities are shrinking and transforming into castle cities.

843 AD
843 AD

The 843 AD, after the end of the iconoclasm, the construction of the monasteries on Mount Athos begins.

885 AD
885 AD

With one gold bullion and its golden seal, Basil I of Macedon, in 885 AD, proclaimed the Saint Term as a place exclusively for monks.

963 AD
963 AD

In 963 AD, the first monastery of Mount Megisti Lavra is built with the support of Nikiforos II Fokas and then, other 19 Monasteries were built.

1000 AD
1000 AD

In 1000 AD, an era of economic and religious development begins.

1420 AD
1420 AD

This period, Halkidiki belongs to Byzantium, but in 1420 AD submitted to the Ottomans

1821 AD
1821 AD

The 17th of May in 1821 AD in Polygyros of Halkidiki and in Karyes of Mount Athos, the revolution is proclaimed with the leader Emmanuel Pappas. The revolution was immediately suppressed, which caused the loss of many lives.

1912 AD
1912 AD

In 1912 AD in October, Halkidiki participated in a new revolution, which leaded to its liberation.

1970
1970 onwards

In modern history (1970 onwards) Halkidiki presents a rapid development of tourism, while is an attraction for thousands of visitors each year. Meanwhile, contributes to its economy country since it counts thousands of acres of vineyards and olive groves.

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